A funeral turned into a demonstration

Amsterdam, The start of the war
4 september 1941

The Germans didn’t allow us to place a tombstone. Nothing was allowed any longer. Nothing!

In 1941 the separation of Jews and non-Jews was carried out with increasing rigor. The sign “Forbidden for Jews” appeared in cafes, swimming pools, playing fields, museums, zoos, libraries, theaters, markets, and numerous other public places. Jews had to hand in their money, and their businesses were seized.